FIRE HAZARD CONSIDERATIONS WITH ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM IN TALL BUILDINGS
The implementation of energy storage systems (ESS) is on the rise. The use of ESS can smooth the imbalance between supply and demand in the power grid. Furthermore, ESS can lead to better operational efficiency, improved quality of power as well as cost reductions. This fairly new technology, however, comes with inherent fire and explosion risks, the extent of which the industry is still working to understand. As the implementation of lithium-ion battery ESS has surged over the last 2-3 years, there have also been more reported fires and explosions with these systems. If strict operational limits cannot be maintained, lithium-ion batteries can undergo a condition called thermal runaway. The typical consequence is the release of potentially large quantities flammable and toxic gases, which must be taken into account in the building safety concept. Solutions will be presented that can help building designers address this hazard.
This presentation provides an introduction into the fire and explosion hazards associated with lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (ESS) and the mitigation of those hazards associated with these systems. In particular, the presentation will explain lithium-ion battery thermal runaway, lay out a general safety approach, and conceptualize mitigation measure options. In addition, applicable codes and standard requirements will be presented to assure that architects, engineers, and project managers are informed about project impacts. Case studies and building applications are presented to deepen the understanding.